The role of Gandhi in the Indian Independent and its strive for self rule has been unquestioned and most of the generations post 1947 had been grown with these images engraved in them through the text books and stories. Hence by and large, he has been portrayed as 'RIGHTEOUS' man and the father of the nation, a role model of many many leaders to follow. Hence, it is difficult to accept criticism and voice of dissent against such a person. Not that it is not there, but are relatively rare and go largely unnoticed.
There had been voices of dissent during his life time, but among the followers and the Indian National Congress community, that lead the independent struggle in the forefront , these voices are quelled. Subhash Chandra Bose, who split from Indian National Congress and started his own Army, seeking association with the Japanese to fight for Indian independence, the revolutionary youths of the 30s - Chandrasekhar 'Azad' , Bhagat Singh and the rest -did continue to inspire the young blood, The Communists however small and insignificant they were in the national politics, and a few Feudal elite, who always watched his actions with contempt, did not really manage to make any dent in his Himalayan popularity and his leadership.
His active role in Indian Politics commenced with his return from South Africa in 1915 ,where he did his initial experimentation with Civil disobedience and Non-violent struggle for rights for Indians and the blacks. Within few years, he rose to the leadership of the Indian National Congress, a role he continue to hold until death, and announced a nation wide strike and disobedience in order to achieve 'swaraj' ( freedom) from the British. As we knew the years after the World War 1 did see major political and religious turmoil across the world. Indian politics and the freedom struggle too, rejuvenated during these years with the leadership of Gandhi. The Jalianwalla Bagh incident, the Khilafat agitation, The Civil disobedience movement lead by Gandhi, the declaration of 'Swaraj', the rejection of Montegu-Chemsford mission, the violence that sprout across the country resulting in the cancellation of the non-cooperation movement and the three 'Anti-Violence Fast' of Gandhi etc made the early 20s of the last century a significant period of Indian history.
Chettur C Sankaran Nair, a barrister by profession, elected President of Indian National Congress during 1897 held at Amraoti, writes his strong views against the political strategy and the ideology of Gandhi in a book written and published in the year 1922. This for all probability, could be the first book that was critical of Gandhi's views and his political leadership. The date of the publication is important to be noted. This is written during these troubled days of Indian Politics and not, as the historians have the privilege of, after the repercussions and implications of these actions are proven. It is also interesting to note how strongly the people felt at that time, and was willing to voice their dissent in open. Nearly 9 decades thence, we have the advantage of the history to evaluate Gandhi for his action and can form our judgement supported by results. Hence, these criticism, for now, seems to have been done in haste and prejudiced. But Sankaran Nair, do bring out a few significant observation on the character and the principles of the man destined to lead India to independence.
Largely attacking Gandhi's non-cooperation movements and his principles on education, swaraj and civil disobedience, Sankaran Nair looks at each of these elements through his strong view points.
The struggle for Indian Home Rule which was started with the inauguration of the Indian National Congress has many difficulties to encounter, has strong and powerful opponents and has received many checks. But its strongest opponent is Mr. Gandhi and perhaps the most severe check it has received is the adoption by the National Congress at his instance in Calcutta and Nagpur of the so-called-Nonviolent Non-co-operation.
starts Sankaran Nair in his preface. He adds, "Non-co-operation as advocated by Mr. Gandhi may be a weapon to be used when constitutional methods have failed to achieve our purpose."
While attacking his philosophy , Sankaran Nair has some interesting observations to make. He says Gandhi " belongs to a class of thought which has attracted some of the noblest minds in this world, but in applying his the gospel of life to politics, he has shown himself a babe and his interference has been generally mischievous."
Mr. Gandhi's emotional outbursts, fasting, penances, "Sanyasi waist cloth", may carry away the emotional masses, women and students. But whether this wave of emotionalism submerged the men above named I would not care to guess.
Further on his clever religious philosophy, Sankaran Nair observes that "The severe simplicity and austerity of Mr.Gandhi's life combined with his appeal to the principle of ' Ahimsa( non-injury )inherited from Buddists and now ingrained in Hindu life, has secured him the support of the Hindu masses and particularly vegetarians. His support of the caste system has won over the higher classes and the reactionary elements of Hindu society to his side."
Gandhi was also against most of the modern advancement of the humanities such as Education, Doctors, Industry, Railways, Lawyers. In one of his writings Gandhi demands.
"India's salvation consists in unlearning what she has learnt during the past fifty years. The railways, telegraphs, hospitals, lawyers, doctors, and such like have all to go, and so called upper classes have to learn to live consciously and religiously and deliberately the simple peasant life, knowing it to be a life giving true happiness".
Sankaran Nair refutes his arguments with his thoughts.
His tirade against machinery and mill industries on account of the evils he has witnessed in the West, is due to his ignorance ; a little knowledge in his case has proved a dangerous thing. It is this feeling which hassled him to advocate the universal use of spinning wheel in India. This might be useful as a cottage or home industry. It might find work for some who would otherwise be idle. But he is living in a fool's paradise if he considers it a substitute for or will supplant, machinery.
Gandhi according to Sankaran Nair carries one of the orthodox religious and caste believes. Quoting Gandhi's words - " Varanashram (caste system) is inherent in human nature and Hinduism has simply reduced it to a science. It does attach by birth. A man cannot change his Varna by choice. Prohibition against intermarriage and inter dining is essential for a rapid evolution of the soul.' - Sankaran Nair assesses that, "It is this caste system which has brought about the conquest of India by the Mahomedans and the Englishmen, both of whom were always supported by the lower castes against the higher. It is responsible for the large conversions to •Christianity and Mahomedanism."
Moving from the philosophy of Gandhi to the issues of the era, he examines each of the elements that constituted Gandhi's political agenda during the time. On the 'Khilafat Movement' he says, "The real truth of course is that in the case of the Khilafat agitation Mr. Gandhi and some of its most active and prominent leaders want to use the agitation to destroy the Government and not to effect a real settlement of the question". Gandhi and the political leadership of Indian National Congress wanted to use the the general dissent in the Muslim community to their advantage combining the forces in their fight against the British. However, on the other hand, "Mahomedan fury against the British Government ( was only) for its failure to support Mahomedan interests in the West.", and not necessarily to do with the swaraj struggle as it was described to be.
As it turned to be, the Khilafat agitation turned violent at many places across India, and widespread riots, killing of Hindus, looting and forced conversion took place at many places. The Malegaon incidents, the Malabar Rebellion ( Mapla Riots of 1921) and other gruesome incidents were later corrected in the history books as independent struggle, underplaying the religious agenda. Gandhi, however supported these incidents saying "you are not aware that the Moplas justify their action on the ground that at such a critical juncture, when they are engaged in a war against the English, their neighbours not only do not help them or observe neutrality, but aid and assist the English in every possible way."
Ridiculing Gandhi's call for swaraj and his promise in the 1920 Lahore Congress that he will obtain 'Swaraj' before the end of the year, Sankaran Nair observed that there is no proper planning and preparation on how to gain 'swaraj' and how to run the country post 'swaraj'. He says, most of Gandhi's ideas are too week and too premature to run such a nation, by his under developed ideas of swaraj.
Gandhi's vision of swaraj is quoted as :
"Swaraj means full Dominion status. The scheme of such swaraj shall be framed by representatives duly elected in terms of the Congress constitution. That means four anna franchise. Every Indian adult, male or female, paying four annas and signing the Congress creed will be entitled to be placed on the electoral list. These would elect delegates who would frame Swaraj constitution. This shall be given effect to without any change by the British Parliament."
But 'swaraj' was a dream, not to materialise in any near future ( as we know it now). Sankaran Nair ridiculed - "Thus Swaraj was to come on September 1-1921, October 31-1921, December 13-1921. At the Congress in December, 1921, Mr. Gandhi gave up fixing any date for the attainment of Swaraj."
Similarly, the civil disobedient movement of the Non-Cooperation Movement also had its own pitfalls. While most of his demands were based on his belief in the 'ahimsa' principle, the workers and general public not necessarily imbibed the same principles in their action. Wide spread violence across the country was reported ( a huge list of incidents given as annexure) forcing Gandhi to withdraw the agitation and he had gone for indefinite fasting at least on three occasion. An idea marred by poor execution. His call for non-cooperation "involving the community in chaos, disorder and possibly violence. The country has had only a vear's training in his (Mr. Gandhi) counsels of non-violent resistance— far loo short a period for his countrymen to imbibe his spirit, in a manner worthy of his teaching."
For instance, the boycott of schools and colleges have not succeeded and even persons, of known and undoubted loyalty to the cause, complain that the action of Congress workers has caused more harm than good. They concentrated too much on the disruption of existing institutions and less on the creation and maintenance of new one on " national " lines. They forgot that a student cannot be left idle in the street and that, if the Congress must call him out, it can only be after it has provided for him a good substitute.
The whole movement of non-cooperation had to be called off in the end as " he under-rated the forces of evil, and that he was obliged to pause and consider how best to meet the situation."
He also question Gandhi and Congress in the way they handled the Punjab issue ( Jalianwala Bagh ) and the boycott call of foreign goods ( he narrates an incident where the dresses were pulled off the ladies humiliating and molesting in public, the boycott of Lawyers and other institutions, which are all come from immaturity and improper understanding. Or in other words about the general anarchy the whole movement caused.
Chettur Sankaran Nair lived long enough to see the outcome of these agitations, but he died much before the country received its independence. His words probably were harsh and venomous at times. He might have been prejudiced and by the time the book was written, he was already knighted and was cooperating with the regime, not giving up the idea of independence. Hence his views and methods were radically different from that of Gandhi (" for the simple reason that I believe that Mr. Gandhi is honest in his self hypnotisation. I believe he does not really know what he is doing") . That displeasure, probably resulted in this book. This book, however, is significant in the history of Indian independent, which provide and alternate view of some of the incidents, which otherwise was known to us through the official statements. This also shows light, albeit critically, to the life of Gandhi in his early years of Indian Politics. Gandhi himself would have progressed from these days both in his strategy as well as personal leadership, learned from the mistakes and experiences.
Nearly half of the book is in the forms of appendix , to substantiate his points and to give weight to his arguments. The note made by Anne Besant, on her visit to Calicut during the Malabar Rebellion, the address of the Viceroy to the nation and Gandhi's self defense at the court were some of the best among the many that were compiled and included at the end.
I would not say, this book is not compelling enough to shake the confidence of a man on Gandhi or on his personal life principles. But it does give the glimpses of the century long independent struggle and few pitfalls in its execution. It also give a non-conditioned ( by time and influenced by out come) view of the history. I am glad that I read this book.
Gandhi and Anarchy ( 1922)
Tagore & Co , Madras